First MaK Dual-fuel Marine Diesel Engine Ships Out for Japan

By George Backwell at July 05, 2013 23:41
Filed Under: Fuels & Lubes, Marine Diesel Engines, Shipyards

The first MaK dual-fuel marine diesel engine has been shipped out of the MaK Rostock, Gerrmany factory, announce Caterpillar Marine Power Systems, destined for the first of a new generation of AIDA cruise ships under construction by Mitsubishi Heavy Industries (MHI) at its Nagasaki Shipyard & Machinery Works.

MaK M 46 DF Marine Diesel Engine: Photo credit: Caterpillar

Upon arrival the new engine will be placed in the hull of the AIDA cruise ship now under construction (due for delivery in March 2015) as the first of two vessels ordered by the Costa Group member company. These luxury 124,500 gross tonnage cruise ships will have accommodation for around 3,300 passengers, and will be the largest ever constructed for AIDA Cruises.

With a bore of 460 mm and stroke of 610, the M 46 DF engine is suitable for electric drive propulsion systems as well as mechanical propulsion systems. It has been designed to allow retrofitting of current M 43 C engines (three of which will also power the cruise liner).

Although designed for unlimited operation on LNG, marine diesel oil (MDO) and heavy fuel oil (HFO), the engine manufacturers say that the M 46 DF will reach maximum efficiency in gas mode, in which their new engine is designed to provide industry-leading fuel consumption as well as compliance with IMO III and EPA Tier 4 regulations.

AIDA Cruises ‘New Generation’ Cruise Ships

New Generation AIDA Cruise Ship: Rendering courtesy of MHI

The new cruise ships on order by AIDA (the keel plate of the first of them was ceremonially cut recently in the shipyard) will be equipped with many advanced environmental technologies, say the shipbuilders, including installation of the "Mitsubishi Air Lubrication System" (MALS).  This MHI proprietary technology, is already proven to reduce fuel consumption and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions through the steady application of a layer of air bubbles blown along the bottom of the vessel's underwater hull form. MALS is expected to reduce fuel consumption in the new ship by approximately 7%.

Research in the arcane science of fluid dynamics has revealed that blowing that interposing layer of air bubbles between a ship’s underwater hull and surrounding seawater reduces hull – sea water frictional resistance, a theory now brought to practical application by MHI after Research and Development then extensive sea trials. It will be the world’s first installation of the MALS technology in a cruise ship.



MAN Diesel&Turbo: Unveiling of Gigantic Engines Confirms Market Trend

Following from the market development towards the further optimisation of large container ships’ propulsion efficiency, MAN Diesel & Turbo has announced  two  significant  additions  to  its  engine  programme.  The G95ME-C9.2  and  S90ME-C10.2  units  rank  among  the  largest  and  most powerful  engines  the  company  has  ever  released  to  the  marine,  two-stroke market.  

The  company  reports  that  the  drawing  delivery  time  for  the  S90ME-C10.2  and G95ME-C9.2 is, respectively, 2–4 months and 9–11 months after placing a firm order, facilitating the consideration of the engines for projects currently in planning stages. 

As can be seen in Figure 1, different alternatives for different layouts – in respect to design speed – can be achieved by the two engine types.

As can also be seen, the S90ME-C9.2 can be made available from 72-84 rpm, that is, the layout diagram of the S90ME-C9.2 can be extended from the current L3-L4 speed of  76  rpm  down  to  72  rpm  if  so  required  for  projects.  This extension of the layout diagram requires no change to the S90ME-C9.2 basic engine design.

The  S90ME-C10.2  is  similar  to  the  well-known  S90ME-C9.2  in  that  all  outline dimensions are identical, including footprints. Any design differences are related to the increase  in  the  mean  effective  pressure,  leading  to  modifications  of  the  crankshaft journal bearing design and web thickness, and including an adaptive modification to the  connecting  rod.  Minor  differences  in  the  size  and  number  of,  for  instance, turbochargers  and  hydraulic  pumps  for  the  Hydraulic  Power  Supply  (HPS)  follow normal power/rpm output rules.

The main figures for the two engine types are as follows:



Graphs: courtesy of MAN Diesel&Turbo

New PSV ‘World Diamond’ delivered to "World Wide Supply"

Damen Shipyards Galati has delivered the ‘World Diamond’, the first of six Platform Supply Vessels (PSV) for Norwegian offshore owner World Wide Supply, built to an entirely new Damen design. The World Diamond was christened by godmother Her Royal Highness Crown Princess Margarita of Romania on June 28th, in a yard ceremony attended by 150 guests.

“Delivery of this first PSV 3300 E3 represents a new era in Damen’s continuing offshore supply vessel story,” said Arnout Damen. “This has been a truly collaborative project, with Damen drawing on expertise from within the group and the client and also from partners among leading research institutes and subcontractors to deliver a first in class vessel designed, built and equipped to European standards for a world class customer.”

Steinar Kulen, representing owner WWS, said: “The cooperation on World Diamond’s design has ensured the delivery of a mid-size PSV capable of worldwide operations to meet the market to come. We have also been very happy with the cooperation with Damen on the build and with the quality and construction undertaken by the yard in Galati.”

Delivery of the new design involved extensive CAD/CAM modelling by Damen Shipyards Gorinchem in the Netherlands and rigorous model testing at MARIN (Maritime Research Institute Netherlands). The PSV 3300 is one type within the new range of Damen PSV’s. The PSV 3300 has been designed and built in line with Damen’s ‘E3’ principles - Environmentally friendly, Efficient in operation and Economically viable. 

PSV World Diamond on sea trial

The 80.1m length PSV 3300 has a deck load of 1,500 tonnes will undertake crew and materials transport to and from offshore platforms but also offers fire-fighting and oil pollution recovery capability. Equipped with azimuth thrusters and dynamic positioning (DP2), the design is distinguished by slender hull lines to meet challenging conditions and minimize fuel consumption, as well as enhanced crew comfort. The ship is a diesel-electric driven unit. The propulsion power is of 2 x electric motors of 1.500 kW each. The created power is transferred to 2 times azimuthing thrusters with 2.400 mm FP propellers in nozzles. The main generator sets consist of: 2 x CAT 3512C, each 1.352 ekW at 1.800 rpm; 2 x CAT C32, each 994 ekW at 1.800 rpm and one emergency genset, wich can be also used as a harbor set 1 x CAT C09 with output of 238 ekW at 1.800 rpm.

The new build received classification stamp of: Lloyd’s Register + 100A1 Offshore Supply Ship, SG 2,8 (MUD tanks), EP, WDL (5 t/m) + LMC, UMS, DP (AA), CAC 3. Descriptive Note: Green Passport

Sideview of the Damen PSV E3-design

First contracts

Mr Kulen said four of the six PSV 3300s due delivery from Damen Shipyards Galati had secured long term contracts supporting Petrobras, offshore Brazil. The remaining two are expected to be offered to the  North Sea spot charter market.


Earlier in the day, World Opal, the fifth vessel in the series due delivery to WWS from the Romanian yard was launched into the water.


image / graph: courtesy of Damen Shipyard

Hush! Hush! Seismic Vessel Package Contract for MAN Diesel & Turbo

By George Backwell at June 29, 2013 01:06
Filed Under: General

Cavitation noise reduction –  underwater noise has a deleterious effect on sensitive seismic data streams – was the target for MAN Diesel & Turbo designers when they set about the task of creating a power and propulsion package for a new GC Reiber Shipping seismic survey vessel. This object they ingeniously achieved and were rewarded with a contract (option for a second vessel) to supply four MAN 8L32/44CR B.2 engines to power proprietary propulsion machinery.

The vessel design is an ST 324 XT from Skipsteknisk of Aalesund, Norway whose hull will be constructed in Poland with outfitting subsequently to be carried out at the Myklebust shipyard north of Aalesund. The propulsion plant is scheduled for delivery by May 2014 with vessel delivery following in March 2015.

Graphical rendering of the new seismic vessel: Image courtesy Skipsteknisk

Power and gearing arrangements
Four of the 4-stroke 8L32/44CR B.2 common-rail engines (delivering 600 kW/cylinder) along with 2 × 2-speed Flender Twin-In/Single-Out reduction gears and MAN Alpha Twin Screw CP propellers in AHT nozzles, will power the vessel.

The reduction gears from Siemens-Flender are specially designed such that – at constant engine speed (750 rpm) – two different propeller speeds can be selected (155 rpm or 120 rpm), allowing the propellers to have a much wider silent-operation window. The TI/SO gears are also provided with 2 × 2,600 kWe PTOs each.

A 4-stroke 8L32/44CR B.2 common-rail engine: Photo courtesy of MAN Diesel & Turbo

Expertise in ice has long been a GC Rieber Shipping trademark with an emphasis on delivering customer solutions for demanding operations in sensitive environments where quality, safety and environmental concerns are crucial. Thus a special feature of the design for the vessel which is to be annotated DNV Ice 1A* is an ‘ice operation mode’ so as to comply with class rules that require one engine (and not two) to be attached to each twin propeller shaft when operating in ice conditions.

Propulsion package
The MAN Alpha VBS1100 Mk5 CP propellers utilise, courtesy of up to six operating modes, the flexible propeller-output speed to operate at the optimum efficiency in all modes in order to help suppress cavitation on the pressure side.

The ø4200 CP propellers operate in Alpha High Thrust (AHT) nozzles, which further help to increase propeller performance by offering higher thrust at low vessel speed, and reduce cavitation noise through selection of the optimum nozzle L/D ratio.

The Alphatronic 2000 remote-control system facilitates the most favourable propulsion-plant control in all operating modes.

Finally, as part of the overall deal, MAN Diesel & Turbo will provide two years of online service and PrimeServLab (stringent quality control for engine operating fluids) in order to obtain valuable performance data for seismic high-load operation.



Volvo Penta D13 certified for EPA Tier 3

By Peter Pospiech at June 27, 2013 11:50
Filed Under: Company News, drive systems

Volvo Penta D13 has now further been developed to meet EPA Tier 3 – the new marine environmental emission standard. The new version of D13 offers improved environmental properties with basically unchanged low fuel consumption.

The D13 is a diesel engine that has been developed within the Volvo Group. It is among the world’s most proven and is currently in operation in more than 450,000 heavy-duty applications, including buses, trucks and construction equipment. At Volvo Penta, this engine is further developed for use in industrial applications for both off-road and electricity production and in unique custom marine applications. This 13-liter diesel engine combines the best of two worlds: the exceptional durability, low fuel consumption and minimal emissions that come from its automotive background and the high torque and power brought by the thorough marinization. D13 MH is available in five models with outputs from 400 to 600 hp. High torque at low rpm is a Volvo Penta hallmark and the D13 excels here. Maximum torque is reached already at around 800-900 rpm. This facilitates maneuvering, but is equally important when towing at low speed, using the power take-off, performing a crash stop and more.  

Environment performance and fuel efficiency

The full range of Volvo Penta D13 marine engines is now upgraded to meet the requirements of EPA Tier 3, which will take effect from 1 January 2014. EPA Tier 3 involves a 40% reduction in particulate matter in the exhaust gases and a 20% reduction in NOx and hydrocarbon.

These high standards are met by the new D13 with the same power and basically identical fuel consumption. It is world-class fuel efficiency together with less environmental impact.

The upgrading of the environmental characteristics will neither change the performance, nor the fuel efficiency. Nor does it imply any changes in terms of design, size or installation ? in these respects will there be no difference to the boat builder, owner or operator.

Volvo Penta D13 is available both as a propulsion engine (D13 MH) or as a marine genset (D13 MG) equipped with different cooling systems as an option.

Fully classed, fully emission approved 

The engine is fully classifiable to meet the demands of all major classification societies. The engine meets the latest EU IWW, CCNR, IMO and EPA emission legislation requirements. The engines and the control system are type-approved by LR, DNV, GL, IRS, RS and CCS. 

Volvo Penta's D13 certified for EPA Tier 3


image: courtesy of Volvo Penta

Damen supplies a “special” to Amsterdam’s Waternet Foundation

By Peter Pospiech at June 24, 2013 04:55
Filed Under: Company News, drive systems, Hybrid system, Shipyards

The “Waterspreeuw”: a tailor-made hybrid patrol vessel for Amsterdam’s complex network of waterways

Damen Shipyards Hardinxveld-Giessendam recently delivered an exceptional vessel, the “Damen Patrol Vessel 1304 Hybrid”, designed and constructed for Waternet (the Water Network Foundation). The most striking features of this hybrid patrol vessel are that it is clean, quiet, and can sail under Amsterdam’s bridges along the through routes. The “Waterspreeuw” – meaning “Dipper” in English – was ceremonially named by the Amsterdam Executive Councillor Carolien Gehrels on 17 June 2013.

Reduced emissions 

Waternet is an innovative water organisation that takes the entire water cycle as its basis. In order to achieve its sustainability objectives, it collaborates closely with other parties. By choosing a hybrid, multifunctional vessel, Waternet is taking the lead in reducing emissions from vessels within the municipality of Amsterdam. The city’s Air Quality Action Plan plays a key role. The Waterspreeuw will be used for inspections and patrols, and for enforcing various legislation and rules in Amsterdam’s canals and other waters. 

Electric motor with powerful reserve

The Waterspreeuw can be powered entirely by electricity with a 130 kW electrically driven rudder propeller manufactured by Hydrosta. ES Technology supplied 13 lithium polymer batteries for the drive system, providing enough electric power for at least 6 hours at an average cruising speed of 10 km/h. The vessel also has a Steyr/AMK diesel generator set that complies with the European CCR3 standard for exhaust gas emissions set by the Central Commission for the Navigation of the Rhine. This means that the engine easily complies with the CCR2 standard stipulated by the client. The engine switches on automatically when the battery capacity falls below the minimum level. Using both drive systems, the Waterspreeuw has a top speed of 16 km/h; using the batteries alone, it can hold that speed for an hour. The engine provides additional capacity when necessary but basically the intention is for the vessel to operate on electric power. The Waterspreeuw is being supplied with a Zone 3 certificate issued by the Human Environment and Transport Inspectorate (ILT).

Green multi-tasker

The Waterspreeuw’s designers took account of the various different waters and bridges in and around Amsterdam. With its overall height of 1.80 metres, it can basically pass under all the bridges along the city’s through routes. The special hull design makes it a low-wash vessel, thus minimising inconvenience to houseboats during manoeuvres in Amsterdam’s busy canals. The rudder propeller and the 11 kW bow thruster mean that the Waterspreeuw is highly manoeuvrable in the narrow canals. The new vessel has its own 3-metre spud pole, meaning that its can moor anywhere without being dependent on the mooring facilities available. With the Waterspreeuw, Damen has created a genuine “green multi-tasker”. 


image: courtesy of Damen


Schottel Unveil New Large Thrusters Units

By George Backwell at June 22, 2013 00:48
Filed Under:

Offshore vessels, tugboats and ferries all have a common need  –  to turn in their own length, even move sideways at times – and German propulsion specialist propulsion manufacturer, Schottel,  specialises in meeting that need.

'ESVAGT Aurora' (2x SRP 3030 CP): Photo courtesy of Schottel

A company whose corporate roots go way back to 1921 continues to lead through its ongoing investment in R&D, now unveiling a new generation of their larger thruster units with their housings hydro-dynamically optimised using CFD techniques.

These new thrusters well-known as SRP (Schottel Rudder Propellers) and STP (Schottel Twin Propellers) are available with a variety of reduction ratios to suit all common input speeds whether diesel engine or electric motor driven, and Schottel add that they are more compact in size than existing thrusters in the range.

Hydraulic clutch drives thruster hydraulic units
The new thrusters come with an independent, hydraulically operated multi-disc clutch, which not only engages and disengages the drive train from the thruster but also drives the hydraulic units of the thruster, making it practically self-contained.

The system is simplified to make maintenance easier, and the clutch is installed separately outside the gearbox using the same type of oil for operation and cooling that is used for lubrication of the thruster. No additional auxiliary units are needed to operate the clutch.

Hydraulic multi-disc brake
In addition to the hydraulically operated clutch, these units also have a hydraulically operated multi-disc holding brake, which is used to block the propeller from turning during service and maintenance work.

Like the clutch, the brake is a separate system outside the upper gearbox and is fully self-contained, requiring no mechanical interface or auxiliary units outside the thruster.

Slipping clutch controls propeller from zero to idle rpm
Schottel offers a new hydraulic slipping clutch to control propeller rpm from almost zero to idle speed which can be mounted on the upper gearbox instead of the standard clutch.

Contained in a separate housing, this clutch provides a power take-off for driving the hydraulic steering equipment. Thus the complete thruster is as self-contained as with the standard clutch.

In addition to the engaging and disengaging function of a standard clutch, the slipping clutch offers the possibility of controlling the propeller rpm from almost zero to the idle speed of the engine and is thus an ideal add-on for diesel direct-driven DP 2 vessels with fixed pitch propellers, double-ended ferries and tugboats using an engine with high idle speed.

Schottel say that all their thrusters are prepared for integration with their Condition Monitoring System S-COM as an aid to maintenance scheduling.


By Peter Pospiech at June 20, 2013 05:13
Filed Under: Company News, drive systems

Weakening the propeller hub vortex behind the propeller decreases propeller resistance and manifests itself as increased thrust. The deflection of the flow aft of the propeller by the optimized profiled fins reduces the propeller torque. In addition to the improved propulsive efficiency, the new Wärtsilä EnergoProFin propeller can also be applied to reduced propeller-induced noise and vibrations. 

Wärtsilä's EnergoProFin and normal propeller in comparison

Wartsila EnergoProFin 

Fuel prices have increased considerably over the last years, making propulsion efficiency even more important than before. The energy losses of a propeller are among other things related to flow phenomena around and behind the propeller boss. Installing the new Wartsila EnergoProFin (WEPF) could increase the overall propulsion efficiency by up to 5% with a payback time of less than one year, reports the company. The result on investment period is relatively short thanks to the attractive price of this propeller. Payback times of 3-14 months are achievable. The company’s new power transmitter is a propeller cap with fins, rotating together the propeller, resulting in an average fuel oil saving of up to 5% and payback time of less than a year for seagoing vessels. 

The propeller is made from the same material as the propeller (NiAlBr) and replaces the normal propeller boss cap. The propeller is easy to install; it can even be installed when the vessel is afl oat provided the vessel can be suffi ciently trimmed. Once the new propeller type is installed, the only required maintenance is polishing during regular cleaning intervals. 


The Wärtsilä EnergoProFin is suitable for all new builds and existing vessels regardless of propeller make. The screw is only applicable to vessels with fixed pitch propellers. The EnergoProFin is designed as an integral part of the propeller. The installation of the new propeller will not affect the manoeuvrability of the vessel. The new screw comes with all required mounting materials and tools. Mounting of the EnergoProFin is simple and can be performed by the shipyards. The newly developed Wärtsilä product is available since end of 2012 and has been installed in April 2013 for the first time on the, under British flag running, 275.616 t ore carrier Berge Lhotse


graphs: courtesy of Wärtsilä

Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) as engine fuel?

By Peter Pospiech at June 18, 2013 04:16
Filed Under: Fuels & Lubes, LNG fuel

To be honest: being a Graduated Engineer for Ship Operation Technology of the “old school” and for around 18 years up to now a specialized shipping journalist with a particular focus on combustion engines, I’m pretty much, let me say it politely: confused! 

Wherever you read an article about gas fuelled engines everybody speaks about LNG-fuelled engines! Lately I read an article in the pretty much well-known daily German newspaper THB (Täglicher Hafenbericht=Daily Port Report) where the following is mentioned: “…Both ferries (Stavangerfjord and Bergensfjord) will be driven solely with liquefied gas (LNG) instead with heavy fuel”. But is this correct?

Most important question: what is LNG and why do we have LNG?

Natural gas (NG) is a mixture of different gases consisting primarily of methane. The higher the methane content (more than 90%) the better. Because the high methane number (MN) influences positively the combustion process. It is usually found in association with fossil fuels and in the past represented a by-product of oil production. Unwanted natural gas was burned off at the well site or pumped back into the oil reservoir with an “injection well”.  Today, natural gas is traded around the world by pipeline (in its gaseous form) or by sea in its liquid condition (Liquefied Natural Gas, LNG). The advantage of transporting NG in LNG condition is clear: a defined volume of LNG contains approximately 600 times more energy than the same volume of NG. The phase transformation from gaseous to liquid implies that cryogenic temperatures (cryogenic=producing, or related to, low temperatures) are reached. Liquefied Natural Gas is the most advantageous way for gas transportation and onboard storage, but a change in mind regarding fuel utilization is required. Equipment related to gas storage, handling and utilization should be designed in order to continuously operate in cryogenic conditions, thereby ensuring the safety and reliability of the installation.

Natural Gas in Transport

At a temperature of minus 162 degrees centigrade the natural gas changes its gaseous condition and gets liquid – now one speaks of liquefied natural gas, widely to be known as LNG. Reason for this liquefaction is the storage capacity, because once the gas changes its condition and gets liquefied it also reduces enormously its volume - by a factor of 600!

In other words: One cubic meter gas fits into a thermos bottle with a content of 1.5 liter!

But liquefied gas cannot be burned in an engine – it must be returned to gaseous condition by a regasification unit at a temperature of around 30 to 40 degree centigrade. In this gaseous condition the gas passes the gas train into the engine under little more than atmospheric pressure.

So, the correct description is: a natural gas driven (or fuelled) combustion engine! 

If technical oriented magazines / shipping magazines would use the correct terminus technicus the reader would better understand the terms “natural gas” and “liquefied natural gas”.

Exhaust emissions in comparison


graphs: Wiener Motorensymposium

Wärtsilä X40 Marine Diesel Engine Passes TAT in China

By George Backwell at June 15, 2013 07:01
Filed Under: Marine Diesel Engines

A Wärtsilä X40 low speed engine recently passed its Type Approval Test (TAT) in Zhouhai, China, on licensee Yuchai Marine Power’s test bed, verifying that it met all classification society requirements. Sea trials come next and then the new engine will be introduced to the market.

X40 Marine Diesel TAT Ceremony: Photo courtesy of Wärtsilä

This engine, with its 400 mm cylinder bore, a power output in the range of 4,550 to 9,080 kW and available in 5–8 cylinder configurations, covers the small-bore end of the market. Wärtsilä say that it is ideal for ‘Handysize’ vessels (smaller bulk carriers, product tankers and container feeder vessels) which is a segment where they are making their presence increasingly felt after a number of years absence.

The Wärtsilä X40 building on the X35 engines, features Wärtsilä’s second-generation version of its well proven electronically controlled common rail system with time controlled fuel injection.

The X Engines have a higher stroke to bore ratio, thus achieving lower engine speed and lower brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC). With this technology the fuel injection for each cylinder, as well as the cylinder lubrication, is controlled by a single module to provide excellent fuel efficiency and reliability as well as lower operational costs. The engine also incorporates the state-of-the-art UNIC-flex control system, which is based on Wärtsilä’s UNIC (Unified Controls) platform.

The Wärtsilä X40 is designed for exceptional reliability and for long periods of maintenance-free operation. It also extemds Time Between Overhaul (TBO) of the critical components, to as long as 5 years.

Environmental Compliance
Introduction of the EEDI index puts an emphasis on CO2 emissions and total vessel efficiency. This engine is fully compliant with IMO Tier II requirements: it can also be equipped with a SCR catalyst to meet IMO Tier III NOX emission levels, and a scrubber to reduce SOX emissions to 0.1% – even with high sulphur fuels.

Wärtsilä say that the internal engine efficiency of X40, and the possibility to apply various Power Take Off (PTO) arrangements for onboard electricity production, make it easy for shipyards to meet the new EEDI requirements. Due to the manufacturer’s common-rail technology, the engine has no visible smoke at any load.

X40 Main data

  • Cylinder bore: 400 mm

  • Piston stroke: 1770 mm

  • Speed: 124-146 rpm
Mean effective pressure at R1: 21.0 bar
  • Piston speed: 8.6 ms
  • Fuel specification: Fuel oil 700 cSt/50°C, ISO-F 8217:2005, category ISO-RMK700

Handysize Product Tankship: Photo courtesy of Wärtsilä




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